Cali, Expanded City-Region: A Metropolitan Territory



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The analytical approaches to studying the region are diverse and evolve as research products appear, as a result of modern systems for collecting, processing and integrating information from the various disciplines. Studies based on political and administrative boundaries, very common in the nineteenth century, move towards the positivist approaches of the twentieth century based on the distribution and organization of demographic and economic factors. Afterwards, the population and its social conditions in terms of infrastructure, economic level and social status are the main object of studies on the regions. The conceptualization of these approaches to study the region enters into crisis with the most recent trends of globalization on industrial and urban geographies (Veltz, 1996; 2008), more visible since the eighties in the last century. The city expands until it overflows into areas without political administrative jurisdiction, giving rise to an urban-rural territorial continuum due to population flows seeking residence, employment, or flows of goods and services. In addition, new territorial identities are built because of ethnic-racial and cultural diversity, and companies are offered new territories to relocate in the midst of this territorial continuum. The rural space is transformed into a new structure and dynamic of economic, social and urban occupation, without necessarily disappearing territories of peasant character in the margins of the region, though they are more articulated to the urban dynamics of the region.

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SOC027000 CIENCIAS SOCIALES > Estadística
JHBC Investigación social y estadística
519.5 Ciencias naturales y matemáticas > Matemáticas > Probabilidades y matemática aplicada > Matemática Estadística



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INDEX

FOREWORD

Juber Galeano, Fernando Urrea-Giraldo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Juber Galeano Loaiza, Fernando Urrea-Giraldo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

The Region of Study: Municipalities of Northern Cauca and Southern Valle del Cauca . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Characterization of the municipalities of Cali, Expanded City Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Cities System-DNP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Rural Mission-DNP and Configuration of Rural-Urban Territories . . . . . . . . . . . .28

Socio-geographic Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

Ethnic-Racial Diversity of the Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32

Spatial Dynamics and Urban-Rural Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

Brief Historical Overview of the Constitution of the Region up to the Present Day. . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

One Region from Southern Valle to Northern Cauca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Evolution of GDP and the Manufacturing Sector in the Region Studied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

The Effect of Free-Trade Zones on Socio-Spatial Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

A Synthesis of What the Expanded City-Region Means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55

Methodological Approach and Databases Employed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

Organization of the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58

CHAPTER 2

TERRITORIAL OCCUPATION PATTERNS AND ORDERING MODELS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE REGION

Juber Galeano Loaiza,Cesar Augusto Londoño. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Dynamics and Forces That Guide the Urban Sprawl: Territorial Expansion and Transformation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Explanation of the dynamics of the urban territorial sprawl of the region of study: the first period from the foundation and implementation of the populated centers to 1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73

Explanation of the dynamics of the sprawl in the second period 1964-1993. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Explanation of the dynamics of the stain in the third period 1993-2014 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75

Evolution of the Spatial Pattern of the Sprawl of the Productive Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Evolution of the Sprawl of the Residential Network in the Periphery of the Cities That Constitute the Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82

Territorial Planning and the Construction of a Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Public Policy Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . 101

Articulating housing plans to the regional urban reality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Mobility planning on a regional scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102

Implementation of associative schemes between municipalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

CHAPTER 3

SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CALI, EXPANDED CITY REGION: MUNICIPALITIES OF NORTHERN CAUCA-SOUTHERN VALLE DEL CAUCA

Fernando Urrea-Giraldo, Rosa Emilia Bermúdez Rico,Andrés Felipe Candelo Álvarez. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Population Dynamics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Sociodemographic Indicators: Inter-Census Period 1993-2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Internal Migration according to the 2005 Census. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113

Some Conceptual Aspects Regarding Migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Lifetime or Permanent Migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114

INDEX

Recent Migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

Causes of Recent Migration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

Living Conditions and Population Mobility: The Relationship between Unsatisfied Basic Needs (UBN) by Ethnic-Racial Group and Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124

Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

CHAPTER 4

PRODUCTION COMPONENT: ECONOMIC STRUCTURE

Elizabeth Aponte Jaramillo, Paula A. Garizado Roman, Javier Andrés Castro Heredia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

Some Features of the Department’s GDP. . . . . . . . 133

From the Department of Valle del Cauca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

From the Department of Cauca. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

Economic Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Stage 1: Definition of the methodology for the

estimation of sectoral municipal GDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143

Stage 2: Disaggregation of Economic Sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144

Stage 3: Selection of leading variables (proxy) and their sources of information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145

Stage 4: Sectoral Municipal GDP Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146

Stage 5: Agglomeration Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146

Sectoral Municipal GDP Estimation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Sectoral Municipal GDP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Agriculture and Livestock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152

Manufacturing Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153

Social Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

Economic Agglomeration Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154

Business Analysis Cali City-Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Spatial Analysis of Cali, Expanded City-Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162

Manufacturing Industry with Agriculture and Livestock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162

Interconnection and Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164

Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

CHAPTER 5

COMMUTING AND IMBALANCES IN THE LABOR MARKET IN CALI, EXPANDED CITY REGION

Alexander Banguera Obregón, Jhon James Mora, Carlos Augusto Viáfara López . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171

Interactions in the Labor Market in Cali, Expanded City Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

Labor Commuting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

Labor-related Migrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Labor Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

Youth Who Are Neither in Employment nor in

Education (NEET) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

NEET Population Composition 199

NEET Population according to Ethnic-Racial Condition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Cali and Its Work Environment: The Effects of Labor Informality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Labor Informality in the Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

Spatial Analysis of Labor Informality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

Conclusions and Policy Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

Policy Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

CHAPTER 6

ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL-ELECTORAL HETEROGENEITY OF THE URBAN AGGLOMERATION OF SANTIAGO DE CALI

Juan Pablo Milanese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Basic Conceptual Remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

Fragmentation as an Analytical Variable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222

Fragmentation into uninominal districts (mayors, governors, and presidents) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224

Fragmentation into Multi-member Districts (Councils, Assemblies, House, and Senate). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

Nationalization Meant as Regionalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Analysis of Regionalization Levels.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236

Final Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238

CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSIONS AND PUBLIC POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

Juber Galeano Loaiza, Fernando Urrea-Giraldo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241

Main components of regional intervention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Regional Political Dimension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247

Short-term Policy Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

ANNEXES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

ABOUT THE AUTHORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287



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